Extreme Web Surfs!
Saturday, May 01, 2004

This is a fascinating subject, not least because ancient civilizations had very enlightened and practical provisions in the area of waste disposal, particularly human waste. Yet, this was 'lost' for over a thousand years, and Western Civilization has only recently emerged from a veritable cesspool once again..

History of Plumbing - starting in Babylon, this site covers many civilizations..

History of Toilets

More Toilet History

Medieval Sanitation - a humerous approach by a member of the Society for Creative Anachronism

However, the results were not funny - among other things, the Plague .. (from Karen Lee's fine medieval pages..)

Sanitation in Pepys' London

The Sewers of Paris

A More Analytical View of Parisian Sewers

Sewer History.Org - truly, a labor of love..

Poor Sanitation and Disease in the construction of the Panama Canal

Hygiene and Sanitation - scientific perspective

War Between Science and Theology - many of Clark's conclusions in this 1898 work are debatable, and in fact seem a bit dated today. However, there are some fascinating and perceptive chapters on the theological reasoning behind the filth on medieval streets..

"It is to be regretted that domestication has seriously deteriorated the moral character of the duck. In a wild state, he is a faithful husband.....but no sooner is he domesticated than he becomes polygamous, and makes nothing of owning ten or a dozen wives at a time."

Isabella Beeton

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